Not everyone knows the existence of worms in the body, the types of worms and the ways in which they can infect people. Some parasites can live in the human body without causing any disturbance. As many as 90% of adults and children do not even suspect that they have been infected with worms. Worms are of great medical importance because they can spread from person to person and cause visceral dysfunction.
The most common types of worms
Human worms are parasites, they live in the organs and live outside the host. There are hundreds of them. In some countries, laboratory tests can only detect some of them. Distinguish the following types of worms:
- Nematode (roundworm);
- ces head (band worm);
- Flukes (flukes).
Distinguish between intracavitary parasites and tissue parasites. The former is characterized in that they live in the cavities of hollow organs (intestines, bile ducts). Tissue worms in the human body live in the thickness of the tissue. Some worms belong to both groups. These are round bugs. Adults live in the lumen of the small intestine, and the larvae can infect the lungs and liver.
The classification of worms not only includes the habitat division of worms, but also includes life cycle characteristics. Some parasites require intermediate hosts (mollusks, fish, animals) to complete their development, and the larvae will mature. This kind of worm is a biological worm. Some parasitic worms need to enter the external environment (water or soil). This is how the ground worm develops.
The types of exposure to helminthiasis are distinguished separately. These include hymen hyperplasia and small intestinal helminthiasis. Contact with patients may infect pinworms and dwarf tapeworms. Distinguish between intestinal worms and extraintestinal worms. The first group includes pinworms, roundworms, tapeworms, and whipworms. Other parasites (bursal bursa, fluke, hydatid oc, trichinella, alveolar) can affect other organs.
Nematode group of worms
Various types of worms are known. The most common is the roundworm (nematode). They belong to the type of primitive worms. The arrangement of human nematodes is as follows:
- Have a body that is not divided into segments;
- Various sizes
- Filamentous or fusiform;
- There are skin muscle capsules and stratum corneum;
- Digestive system with a through-tube form;
- Able to lay eggs.
Most commonly, these worms are manifested in humans as gastrointestinal diseases. The most common nematodes parasitic in the human body are pinworms, roundworms, hookworms (insecticides and hookworms) and whipworms. According to the World Health Organization, more than 1 billion people suffer from small bowel disease. Young children are more likely to get sick.
A person can be infected with pinworms anywhere. This is due to the widespread distribution of these worm eggs. Transmission factors include toys, household items, pens, pencils, unwashed food, dirty hands, railings on buses, and telephones. Among all types of worms, pinworms are most commonly found.
These parasites reach 1 cm in length and have elongated bodies and sharp ends. They are attached to the intestines. Children who go to kindergarten are more likely to get sick. The worms live in the human body for 1-2 months. A person can not only be infected with small bowel disease, but also as infective. Usually, these diseases are detected at the same time. The worm is larger (20-40 cm).
These are worms whose eggs develop and stay in the soil for a long time. The route of infection is oral. This happens when you come into contact with the ground, drink untreated water, and eat vegetables and fruits contaminated with feces. Worms, such as whipworms, are usually detected. This is the causative agent of trichomoniasis. Their bodies are very thin, like hair. The back of the parasite thickens.
These worms reach 55 cm in size, and they live in the colon. As many as 30% of the population is infected with hookworms. These are worms, which mainly occur in countries with warm climates. They are otherwise called crooked heads. These worms only parasitize in humans. Their body length reaches 14 mm. Cervical worms can live up to 15 years, while hookworms can live up to 8 years.
Representative of tape bug
Doctors usually have to deal with tapeworms. They are called cestodes. The special thing about this worm is that its body is divided into multiple parts. This group includes various tapeworms (dwarf, cattle and pork), as well as broad tapeworms. In children under the age of 14, pathogens that cause hymenosomiasis are often found. This is a dwarf tapeworm.
This worm has the following distinctive features:
- Up to 5 cm;
- Mainly parasitize in the intestine;
- There is a head (scolex), a neck, a body (strobila), 4 suction cups and hooks;
- Divided into several parts;
- Fully developed in the human body.
Like pinworms, dwarf pinworms are also contact worms. The eggs of the parasite can be spread by insects (flies). The variety of species is up to 20 m or more. A notable representative is the widespread tapeworm. This is the causative agent of bitrichiasis. This worm is a biological worm.
In order to complete its life cycle and transform into an adult animal, it needs to enter the intermediate host (fish and crustacean) organisms. The special feature of this parasite is that due to the lack of vitamin B12, its long-term stay in the human body will cause persistent anemia. Flagellosis often affects people who like fish. These parasites affect people living near freshwater bodies and fishing. Broad tapeworms can live in the human intestine for 20 years or more. Animals (cats, dogs, bears) can also be the ultimate owners.
Usually, the infection occurs through a worm called Echinococcus. They live in the human body as larvae. Humans are the intermediate hosts and at the same time a dead end for the development of worms. Infection occurs when eating infected game or livestock meat, unwashed vegetables and fruits. Echinococcus has single cavity and multiple cavity.
The latter is called pneumococcus. These cuts are more common in the liver and lungs, forming cysts. They are bubbles with liquid substances and parasites (heads). Massive damage to the liver can cause tissue compression. If the capsule ruptures, there is a risk of electric shock. There are other types of worms: cattle and pork tapeworms. They are the causative agents of tendinitis and tendinopathy.
Only the doctor knows what a worm is. Flukes (flukes) are very common. These include schistosomes, fascia and cat flukes. These types of worms have the following functions:
- Small size;
- Equipped with suction cups;
- Leaf-shaped or round (except for schistosomiasis).
The following are Fluke's groups:
In most cases, these parasites do not infect the intestines, but infect other organs. Worm (such as schistosomiasis) infection can cause damage to the urinary tract (kidney, bladder), liver and other organs. More than 300 million people are infected with schistosomiasis. These are small (up to 2 cm) parasites with elongated bodies. Men are more likely to get sick than women.
Schistosoma can affect veins, kidneys, bladder, ureters and abdominal organs. They feed on blood. Schistosomiasis are biological worms. They develop in freshwater mollusks. They are characterized by being able to actively leave the blood vessels and be excreted into the environment along with their metabolites (urine and feces). Schistosomiasis can cause cystitis, anemia, lymphadenopathy, liver, kidney and genital damage.
Parasites that are rare in humans include include worms (liver flukes and giant flukes). Some people are as tall as 10 cm. When a person eats salads and green vegetables that grow near stagnant water, they will be infected by herbivores through the nutrient esophagus. Raw water can also be the transfer factor.
The fascia is hermaphrodite. They affect the bile ducts, leading to the development of cholestasis and liver fibrosis. In severe cases, hepatitis or cholecystitis can occur. Cat worms are unique to humans. It causes telangiectasia. The reason was eating infected fish.
Not everyone knows which worms are spread through meat. This group includes worms such as cattle and pork tapeworm, Echinococcus echinensis, and Trichinella. Pathologies such as trichinosis can lead to serious consequences. This is a disease caused by small round worms. Trichinella enters the human body through food.
It is dangerous to eat the following products:
- Game (bear meat, wild boar);
- Homemade sausage
- Homemade Bacon
- Steaks and rare meats;
It is not recommended to eat walrus, seal and nut meat. At-risk groups include hunters, tourists, livestock keepers, and people who are doing poorly or not doing well. Trichinosis is characterized by severe allergic reactions, edema and muscle damage. In difficult circumstances, it may lead to fatal consequences.
Meat is the spreading factor of tapeworms in cattle and pork. People get infected by eating pork or beef containing worm Finns. This is the intermediate (larval) form of parasite development. Adult pork tapeworms are 4 m long and cattle are 20 m long.
Distinguish the following risk factors of susceptibility, susceptibility and susceptibility:
- Lack of veterinary supervision;
- Poor heat treatment of meat;
- Raising livestock (cattle, pigs);
- Unsanitary conditions;
- Infect with cyst tail water.
Usually, only one adult tapeworm lives in the patient's intestines. Nevertheless, the parasite can still cause indigestion and intestinal obstruction. The presence of these worms in humans can be detected by examining the stool. One of the characteristics of the cattle tapeworm is that its parts can crawl and move actively when emptying the intestines.
Herbivores themselves become infected by eating grass contaminated with sick animal feces. Fins (cyst tail) are formed in livestock (pigs and cattle). They are easy to spot when buying and cutting meat. They are round and yellow. People infected with cattle tapeworm are not dangerous to others.
Eating several types of cooked or fried fish may be infected with several types of worms. The human body needs different products. Millions of people around the world eat freshwater fish, caviar and milk. They are at risk of developing bilobal flagellosis and bronchiolitis.
In some areas, widespread tapeworms and cat flukes are endemic worms. The reason is active fishing and fish infections. Aspirin infection can infect up to 75% of the population. These parasites can also infect animals (cats, foxes, dogs). Infection occurs when eating half-lived fish (carp, sea bream, cockroach, ide) infected by parasite larvae.
Risk factors include rapid frying of infected ingredients, use of lightly salted, dried or raw fish, caviar, and kebabs. The mechanism of infection is dietary. Cat flukes belong to the group of flukes. The length of the worm does not exceed 2 cm. These worms can cause stagnation of bile, inflammation of the pancreas, hepatitis, and movement disorders.
If not treated in time, the possibility of developing cancer and liver cirrhosis will increase. Fish can cause ditricillosis. This is a theropod caused by a wide range of tapeworms. These worm infections occur when eating infected fish from freshwater bodies. The most dangerous are rotundus, pike, perch, pike perch, and burbot. These are predatory fish. The second intermediate host of tapeworms is crustaceans.
These worms live in the small intestines of humans and some animals that feed on tapeworm larvae. Unlike the pathogen of Aspirin, this worm affects the intestines and causes the mucus layer to shrink. Anemia often develops. Leaching mountain sickness mainly affects adults. At-risk groups include those with fishermen in the family and lovers of dried and shallow salted fish.
Worms affect the skin
Worms can affect the skin and soft tissues. This group includes Resida (the causative agent of dracunculiasis). This is a nematode that can reach up to 120 cm in size. It affects subcutaneous and intermuscular tissues. A person can become infected by drinking dirty water or bathing. The parasite enters the intestine and then into the subcutaneous tissue.
When the worm is sexually mature, it secretes special substances that corrode the skin. At this point, an ulcerative defect is formed, and the parasite shows a larva through the defect. This happens when in contact with water. Such patients will experience severe itching. Rishta is more common in tropical countries. Cyclops (freshwater crustaceans) are intermediate hosts.
Some worms independently invade human skin after being exposed to water. These include intestinal acne. The main infection mechanism is transdermal. The larvae of the parasite damage the skin and flood into the blood. Risk factors for infection include walking barefoot on the ground, swimming in muddy water, and working in agriculture.
How to get rid of different types of worms
Doctors should treat patients after laboratory and instrumental research. Choose anti-worm drugs according to the type of worm.
Many drugs can kill and eliminate all kinds of worms. Almost always, doctors prescribe drugs that have a wide range of effects, because even after the parasite eggs are detected in the stool, it is difficult to determine the type.
If an infected person (in hymenosis or intestinal helminthiasis) lives in the same apartment as someone, these people need to be checked and treated.
Each anthelmintic has not only indications but also contraindications.
Medication alone is not enough. Certain types of parasites require surgery. For echinococcosis, the cyst is removed. This surgery is also required in the presence of parasites in the heart and brain. Some worms need to observe hygiene and sanitation measures.
They are performed after treatment and during medication. To get rid of pinworms, you need to change underwear every day, wash and iron, wear tight swimming trunks, wash the floor and wipe all household items.
Therefore, a large number of different parasitic worms exist in the human body.